A weak state allows these kinds of groups to be active in the first place – their radical ideology becomes more attractive to people if the state does not provide adequate public services and the politicians are corrupt. The interview was conducted by Gwendolin Hilse. In the popular mind, to discuss religion in the context of international affairs automatically raises the specter of religious-based conflict. Religion is the spark for disputes throughout the world, but especially in Africa. Matthias Basedau: Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. when the Iranians, who made the revolution a success and subsequently assumed position of power and authority in the government administration, formulated the state policy of their liking. All Christians are listed in one category regardless of their denominations. African governments must do most of the work with the support of other countries. In a multi-ethnic and religiously diverse society like Nigeria, relationships between people may be characterized by lack of cordiality, mutual suspicion and fear as it is the case among the ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form of Islam, for example, Sufism. Active radical groups have a more direct influence in North Africa, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), or offshoots of the so-called Islamic State. advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? Today, Africa is laced with some of the most obstinate conflicts, most of them constructed from differences in religious and ethnic identities. They have an interest in creating branches in other countries. Please make sure to include your name and your country. Ethiopia was the first countryto adopt Christianity as a doctrine. Still today most violent conflicts contain religious elements linked up with ethno-national, inter-state, economic, territorial, cultural and other issues. (26.10.2016). Firstly, we need to be aware that there are both religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time. The government has been unable to destroy Boko Haram or end … ... Th is religious map of Africa is the result of the encounters, over centuries, between the indigenous religions of the continent with the Arabs and the Eu- Several measures will be required but the good news is that some of these are already in place. It can also be said to be an incompatibility, as of two things that cannot be simultaneously fulfilled. © Yerepouni News (Managed by Alienative.net). It is about good governance and security. https://www.dw.com/en/religious-conflicts-on-the-rise-in-africa/a-40645771 DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. Religious and ethnic conflicts are likely to escalate as two other northern states, Niger and Sokoto, have bills to enforce sharia law expected to take effect in May this year. 7.6: Religious Conflict in North Africa and Southwest Asia. On the other hand, thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures. You also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts. From a non-religious point of view, this is mainly about long-term development. The parties involved may differ on the question of what role religion should play in the state. But we are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have theological demands. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. But we should not expect that this alone will make a quick and sustainable difference. For example, radical Muslim groups demand the introduction of Sharia law. Religious and ethnic nationalism has led to conflicts about control of state power, unequal allocation of resources, citizenship issues, state collapse, economic decline and ethno-religious clashes. It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. On July 9, 2011, South Sudan became an independent nation. However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts - they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. Matthias Basedau: Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. Globalization – the simplified flow of information, goods and finances – promotes these kinds of issues, not only in Africa, but also elsewhere. We will sample your texts in our show. Contact What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts? Conflicts in the region are often viewed as either 'tribal' or 'Muslim-Christian', seemingly rooted in … What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts? ISIS represents a fundamentalist view of Islam, known as Islamism. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. As a general rule, the process of conflict outbreak involves three … How do you explain this phenomenon? Political scientist Professor Matthias Basedau conducts research on peace and security at the GIGA Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. Other Middle Eastern states are more likely to have an indirect influence. The counter-measures must be based on a careful analysis of the causes. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. There is no conflict based purely on religion. The parties involved may differ on the question of what role religion should play in the state. All religions have their accepted dogma, or articles of belief, that followers must accept without question. On the religious side, one can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of faith. He recently published a study on the rise of armed religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. The raids took place in neighboring Somalia, where the government is fighting the Islamists. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. In this session, participants will engage with the German Ambassador to Tanzania, Ambassador Regine Hess, who presides over the long-standing and close relations between Germany and the nations of East Africa. «Նոյյան Տապան»-ի հյուրն է գրող, հրապարակախոս, գործարար Կիրակոս Գույումճեանը. Prior to … | Mobile version. A weak state allows these kinds of groups to be active in the first place - their radical ideology becomes more attractive to people if the state does not provide adequate public services and the politicians are corrupt. On the religious side, one can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of faith. As religious armed conflicts in Africa and elsewhere stem from a mix of causes, responses must include a variety of measures. 4.3.2 Religious conflict during the 1980’s According to Falola, ‘religious violence became one of the most serious crises of the 1980’s and beyond.’75 Falola argues that the religious violence during the 1980’s in Nigeria was a result of internal economic and political decay.76 He further argues that religious tension was building up from the 1970’s as a result of the role that religion played in politics. 3. Religious Wars. First, policies need to address both the religious and non-religious causes. The recent attacks are nothing new as religious (and ethnic) conflicts have haunted the country for several years, reaching a peak at the end of 2012. Among the believers of Christ, ther… The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. It is about spreading a radical version of Islam. The rise of ISIS is representative of many key issues of geography in this region: the intersection of religious values, political instability, and control of territory and resources. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc. The Igbo massacre of 1966 in the North that followed the counter-coup of the same year had as a dual cause the Igbo officers' coup and pre-existing (sectarian) … However in Nigeria, religious conflict does not only carry religious motive but also politically inclined such that according to Marshall, recently, the president of Nigeria was forceful in saying the Nigerian conflict has nothing to do intrinsically with religion, that is used as an excuse by politicians’ 10. Since the awakening of religion, wars have been fought in the name of different gods and goddesses. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. He recently published a study on the rise of armed religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. How do you explain this phenomenon? The GRI comprises 20 measures of restrictions, now grouped into the following categories:6 CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. In other words, governments and states must offer their citizens better prospects. Trial for murder of reporter Jan Kuciak begins in Slovakia, Tragedy of Artsakh Or Fear and Shame of Nikol Pashinyan, Global Research on Karabakh conflict, Pashinyan, Soros: Don’t blame the Soviets for war in Karabakh, Azerbaijan Jews know fears of Nagorno-Karabakh ‘Cultural Genocide’ unfounded. Privacy Policy | It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. Basically, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts. Nigeria, in view, is a country blessed with vast geographical landmarks, a nation with vast ethnic groups and many … In Nigeria the Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims. Միլիոնաւոր ամերիկացիներ պիտի դադրին  գործազրկութեան  նպաստէն օգտուելէ, եթէ մինչեւ  շաբաթ  օր նախագահ Թրամփ  չստորագրէ պսակաւոր ժահրին դէմ պաշտպանութեան   Ներկայացուցիչներու տան քուէարկած   օրինագիծը: Նախագահ  Թրամփ  49  անձերու  ներում  շնորհեց, որոնց մէջ՝   քրէական յանցագորութեամբ բանտարկեալներ: Բրիտանիոյ  եւ  Եւրոպական Միութեան միջեւ Brexit-ի համաձայնութիւնը կը  մօտենայ: Արա Այվազեան-  Սերկէյ  Լաւրով հեռախօսազրոյց: 27 դեկտեմբեր  1346՝   ծնաւ    հայ իմաստասէր  Գրիգոր Տաթեւացին ( վախճանեցաւ՝1409): 27 դեկտեմբեր 1571՝  ծնաւ  գերմանացի աստղագէտ  Եոհան Քեփլըրը (մահացաւ՝  1630): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1822՝  ծնաւ  ֆրանսացի   մանրէաբան  Լուիս  Փասթէորը (մահացաւ՝ 1895): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1901՝ ծնաւ  ծագումով  գերմանացի-ամերիկացի դերասանուհի, երգչուհի  Մարլէն  Տիթրիխը (մահացաւ՝ 1992): 27  դեկտեմբեր  1923՝  մահացաւ ֆրանսացի  ճարտարագէտ  Կիւսթաւ Էյֆէլը (ծնեալ՝ 1832): 27  դեկտեմբեր 1925՝  ծնաւ  ֆրանսացի դերասան  Միշէլ Փիքոլին: 27  դեկտեմբեր  1925՝  մահացաւ  ռուս  բանաստեղծ  Սերկէյ  Եսենինը (ծնեալ՝ 1895): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1940՝   մահացաւ  հայ  հասարակական գործիչ Արշակ  Ջամալեանը (ծնեալ՝ 1882): 27  դեկտեմբեր   1998՝  մահացաւ  հայ  գրող եւ հրապարակախօս Գէորգ Աճեմեանը (ծնեալ՝  1932). Other Middle Eastern states are more likely to have an indirect influence. In his article, ‘Conflict and Peace in West Africa,’ Cybil Obi identifies that: The roots of conflict in West Africa are much deeper and complex, and are embedded in the interplay of historical factors, socio-economic crisis, legacies of authoritarianism and the politics of exclusion, international forces, and local struggles . Such conflicts can arise in majority Muslim societies, such as Mali, Somalia or Northern Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form of Islam, for example, Sufism. We do not know everything yet, but some measures are likely to take hold. Why do radical groups from North Africa and the Middle East have an interest in stirring up these conflicts? Examine Figure 13-1 and you will see that several countries in Africa are in this situation, including Nigeria , Africa ’s most populous state. Globalization - the simplified flow of information, goods and finances - promotes these kinds of issues, not only in Africa, but also elsewhere. Although religion is a major factor in the Sudanese conflicts, it is not the only one. Send us a text at +49-160-9575 9510. International SMS charges apply. They have supported rebels in Mali and there are indications that they are also doing it in Nigeria and Somalia. This can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is clear that heterogeneous societies are more vulnerable to triggering conflicts along these lines. Conflict Trends in Africa – M. G. Marshall (2005) Page 1 of 28 African Regional Trends in Warfare and Political Instability The modern state system in Sub-Saharan African1 (hereafter referred to simply as Africa) is relatively new; only Ethiopia, Liberia, and South Africa were recognized as independent states In Burundi and Nigeria for example, Germany supports pilot projects through the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). RELIGION AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON EAST AFRICA Bjørn Møller DIIS REPORT DIIS REPORT 2006:6 DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. It is about spreading a radical version of Islam. For example, radical Muslim groups demand the introduction of Sharia law. Most Africans are Christians, but is Christianity an African religion? The organization is a rival to the al-Shabab terror group, which is linked with al-Qaida. If the various facets of weak states increase the risk of conflict… Several measures will be required but the good news is that some of these are already in place. We use cookies to improve our service for you. But it is not entirely clear how this influence is spreading or how strong it is. Religious polarization is a real challenge in Nigeria, and it has likely increased. However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts – they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. But we are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have theological demands. Somalia is one of the most unstable countries in Africa; it is also one of the most religiously homogenous countries on the continent. They have supported rebels in Mali and there are indications that they are also doing it in Nigeria and Somalia. Active radical groups have a more direct influence in North Africa, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), or offshoots of the so-called Islamic State. But it is not entirely clear how this influence is spreading or how strong it is. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. This book explains why conflicts in Africa are sometimes ethnic and sometimes religious, and why a conflict might change from ethnic to religious even as the opponents remain fixed. But of course, not all Muslims in these countries are radical Islamists. The many other dimensions and impacts of religion tend to be downplayed or even neglected entirely. What counter-measures would have to be taken to stop the advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? Political scientist Professor Matthias Basedau conducts research on peace and security at the GIGA Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg. But we should not expect that this alone will make a quick and sustainable difference. But of course, not all Muslims in these countries are radical Islamists. (20.03.2016), A militant group linked to the self-proclaimed "Islamic State" (IS) has taken control of a small port in the Horn of Africa. Countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar are spreading Wahhabism, or similar variants, which can indirectly create a radical ideology that leads to violence. They have an interest in creating branches in other countries. Although not necessarily so, there are some aspects of religion that make it susceptible to being a latent source of conflict. It has two objectives: to analyse the role Christianity played in the TRC and to highlight certain consequences that may be instructive to future international conflict resolution processes. This can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is clear that heterogeneous societies are more vulnerable to triggering conflicts along these lines. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. Countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar are spreading Wahhabism, or similar variants, which can indirectly create a radical ideology that leads to violence. In the Islamic history, conflict between religion and politics settled after the Abbasid revolution (750.A.D.) African governments must do most of the work with the support of other countries. CONFLICTS AND CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA. In fact, this mutual suspicion and lack of cordiality among the various ethnic components explains why ethnic and religious conflicts have become a permanent feature of Nigeria as a nation as far back as 1980s … Causes of Religious conflicts in Kenya Religious conflict in Kenya is in most cases linked to general intercommunal conflict and follows almost synonymous pattern as that of inter-ethnic conflict. There is no conflict based purely on religion. © 2020 Deutsche Welle | Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. Somalia is one of the most unstable countries in Africa; it is also one of the most religiously homogenous countries on the continent. Nigeria has been pushed hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional or sta… This is different from theological conflicts which are mostly about religious ideas. The counter-measures must be based on a careful analysis of the causes. Religion and conflict resolution is an area of significant importance. The group refuses to register as a religious movement. Conflict resolution in African countries Africa as a continent is endowed with enough resources to keep the world moving for years. It is about good governance and security. Why do radical groups from North Africa and the Middle East have an interest in stirring up these conflicts? Boundaries between major religions that cross countries can be powerful sources of conflict, with serious implications for political cohesion and stability. In inter-religious conflicts, the conflict parties differ in their religious affiliation - for example, Christians and Muslims. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. Conflict is thus as old as humanity. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Got an opinion about the stories making headlines? They include the Protestants, Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Independent and non-affiliated Christians. This is different from theological conflicts which are mostly about religious ideas. Religion and Violence 1. This book examines the ambiguous role that Christianity played in South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict? The interview was conducted by Gwendolin Hilse, In northwestern Nigeria, a lethal conflict between the authorities and the outlawed Islamist group IMN continues one year after hundreds were killed in clashes. In inter-religious conflicts, the conflict parties differ in their religious affiliation – for example, Christians and Muslims. (14.12.2016), The Kenyan military has killed some 34 militants belonging to the extremist al-Shabab group in two separate operations. In Nigeria the Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims. From a non-religious point of view, this is mainly about long-term development. “Conflict” is defined as the underlying issue in dispute between or among parties and “conflict resolution” as the elimination of causes of the underlying conflict. Such conflicts can arise in majority Muslim societies, such as Mali, Somalia or Northern Nigeria. Conflict can be defined as a clash or disagreement often violent between opposing groups or individuals. On the other hand, thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures. You also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts. The contribution that religion can make to peacemaking--as the flip side of religious conflict--is only beginning to be explored and explicated. Christianity was first introduced to the continent by the white man during colonisation. Firstly, we need to be aware that there are both religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time. Legal notice | The Government Restrictions Index measures government laws, policies and actions that restrict religious beliefs and practices. In other words, governments and states must offer their citizens better prospects. We do not know everything yet, but some measures are likely to take hold. Send Facebook Twitter reddit EMail Facebook Messenger Web Whatsapp Web Telegram linkedin. advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. What counter-measures would have to be taken to stop the advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict? Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953, and in the case of the town of Tafawa Balewa, to 1948. After all, if it is the word of God, how can one compromise it? Basically, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts. For decades, religious leaders serve as a means of conflict prevention, mediation, and peacebuilding in East Africa. At the same time, scripture and dogma are often vague and open to interpretation. This can lead to inflexibility and intolerance in the face of other beliefs. In Burundi and Nigeria for example, Germany supports pilot projects through the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). (function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); You have entered an incorrect email address! 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